The National Eligibility cum Entrance Test-Under Graduate (NEET-UG), formerly
the All India Pre-Medical Test (AIPMT) is an entrance examination in India for
students who wish to study undergraduate medical courses (MBBS) and dental
courses (BDS) in government or private medical colleges and dental colleges in
India. The undergraduate NEET (UG), for MBBS and BDS courses, is currently
conducted by the National Testing Agency (NTA), which provides the results to the
Directorate General of Health Services at the Ministry of Health and Family
Welfare. Prior to 2019, the test was administered by the Central Board of
Secondary Education (CBSE) in partnership with Prometric Testing Pvt Ltd
headquartered in the USA. NEET-UG replaced the All India Pre Medical Test
(AIPMT) and all individual MBBS exams conducted by states or colleges themselves
in 2013. However, many colleges and institutes had taken a stay order and
conducted private examinations for admission to their MBBS and BDS courses.
NEET-UG is a single entrance test for admissions to more than 66,000 MBBS and BDS seats across India. In 2018 NEET exam, around 80% of the candidates wrote the exam in English, 11% in Hindi, 4.31% in Gujarati, 3% in Bengali and 1.86% in Tamil. Undergraduate courses at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi and Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER) are outside the NEET’s purview, as these institutes were set up by separate laws.
NEET was initially proposed to take place from 2012 onwards. However, for several reasons, the CBSE and Medical Council of India deferred NEET by a year. The test was announced by the Government of India and was held for the first time on 5 May 2013 across India for students seeking admission for both Undergraduate and Postgraduate Medicine. On 18 July 2013, SC gave the decision in favour of 115 petitions and cancelled the NEET exam and announced that MCI could not interfere with the admission process done by colleges.
Following the announcement from the Medical Council of India that it would introduce the NEET-UG exam in 2012, several states including Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu strongly opposed the change, stating that there was a huge variation in the syllabus proposed by the MCI and their state syllabi. Even though NEET 2016 is conducted in English and Hindi, it was announced that students can write exams in Tamil, Telugu, Marathi, Bengali, Assamese and Gujarati languages from 2017 onwards. Kannada, Odia languages are added to the list so that students can write the exams in nine Indian languages and English. The Supreme Court of India quashed the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) for admissions into all medical and dental colleges on 18 July 2013. The apex court ruled that the Medical Council of India cannot conduct a unified examination.
According to a 2013 announcement by CBSE, CBSE planned to conduct AIPMT on 4 May 2014. The final decision on NEET UG was planned to be taken after the verdict of the Supreme Court of India.
The Central Board of Secondary Education announces the results and the All India Merit List for NEET-UG. The merit list and the wait-list are prepared as per the directives of the Supreme Court of India, DGHS, MCI and DCI. The results for 2013 were announced on 5 June.
NEET was declared illegal and unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of India in 2013. However, it was restored on 11 April 2016, after a five-judge Constitution bench recalled the earlier verdict and allowed the Central Government and the Medical Council of India (MCI) to implement the common entrance test until the court decides afresh on its validity.
The first AIIMS was established in 1956 under the All India Institute of Medical
Sciences Act, 1956.Originally proposed by the then Prime Minister of India
Jawaharlal Nehru for establishment in Calcutta, it was established in New Delhi
following the then Chief Minister of West Bengal Bidhan Chandra Roy refusal.
In 2003 the Government of India announced the Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY) initiative which aimed at "correcting regional imbalances in the availability of affordable/reliable tertiary healthcare services". This was to be done through two main channels: setting up AIIMS-like institutions and upgrading government medical colleges.PMSSY was officially launched in March 2006 and six AIIMS-like medical institutes were announced for under-served states in Patna, Bhopal, Raipur, Bhubaneshwar, Jodhpur and Rishikesh. Theses were originally assigned ₹332 crore (equivalent to ₹797 crore or US$120 million in 2018) per institution, a sum which was raised to ₹820 crore (equivalent to ₹14 billion or US$200 million in 2018) in 2010.
The six institutes become operational through an Ordinance from September 2012. The All India Institute of Medical Sciences (Amendment) Bill, 2012 was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 27 August 2012 in order to replace that Ordinance. Lok Sabha passed the Bill on 30 August 2012, it was introduced in Rajya Sabha on 3 September 2012 and passed on 4 September 2012. The Act was published on 13 September 2012.
In addition to the establishing six institutes, the Act also conferred the power to establish other AIIMS-like institutes by gazette notification. In 2013 a further gazette notification was made under the same Act, establishing AIIMS Raebareli.
On July 2014, in the budget speech for 2014–15, the Minister of Finance Arun Jaitley announced a budget of ₹500 crore (equivalent to ₹597 crore or US$86 million in 2018) for setting up four new AIIMS, in Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra and the Purvanchal region in Uttar Pradesh.  Of these "Phase-IV" institutes, three became AIIMS Mangalagiri in Andhra Pradesh, AIIMS Nagpur in Maharashtra, established in 2018 and AIIMS Gorakhpur, which started operation in 2019. The remaining one is to become AIIMS Kalyani in West Bengal.
The Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER) is a medical school located at Pondicherry, the capital of the Union Territory of Puducherry, in India. JIPMER is an Institute of National Importance (INI) and a tertiary care referral hospital that is under the direct administrative control of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India with autonomy to run its internal administration. JIPMER, spread over a campus of 195 acres (0.79 km2 ), has about 230 faculty, 360 resident physicians and over 3,000 nursing, administrative and support staff. Every year it admits 150 undergraduate students and 200 postgraduate students. The year 2019-20 saw over 24 lakh out patient visits, 3.5 lakh admissions, and 70,000 operations performed at JIPMER.
The MHT-CET or Common Entrance Test is an annual entrance exam conducted
by the Government of Maharashtra. It is conducted by the Directorate of Technical
Education. The degree courses of the following streams are mainly accounted for in
this entrance exam:
Earlier the test scores were also used for admissions to Medical degree courses. After the Supreme Court of India hammered the deduction for NEET for Medical colleges; MHT-CET is scrapped for medical colleges. The test is conducted in online mode for the first time in 2019. The State Common Entrance Test Cell, Maharashtra released the syllabus and marking scheme for the Computer Based Test (CBT).
MHT-CET (MHCET) is conducted by Government of Maharashtra, State Common Entrance Test Cell for admission to first year of full-time degree courses of Health Sciences and Technical Education (Engineering and Technology, Pharmacy) in the state of Maharashtra.
One important change from 2019 is MHT-CET 2019 will be conducted as an Online Computer based Test instead of Pen-Paper based examination.